Poznań's National Museum houses a painting titled “The Vegetable Market”, which is regarded as having been painted by Józef Pankiewicz in 1888. However, there is an old photograph depicting the original of The Vegetable Market which differs significantly from the canvas in the Poznań collection. In view of this difference, it was necessary to establish whether the painting in the Poznań collection is the original or perhaps a replica or copy, or maybe even a fake. The history of Pankiewicz's The Vegetable Market and the fortunes of the canvas in the Poznań collection do not allow to confirm the identity of these paintings. A technological analysis of the National Museum painting, based on photography specialists have produced so far using IR and UV rays, as well as an analysis of how the figures and objects were formed do not lead to the positive conclusion. The signature on the picture from Poznań raises serious doubts as well. The circumstance relating to how the painting was purchased in 1948 to the museum are very unclear. As a consequence the book puts forward a thesis the painting is another fake attributed to this artist, made before, during or after the Second World War. The answer why it was treated for year as Pankiewicz’s painting was given as well.