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Constitutional barriers to the applicability of private law in the public sector. A comparative study with particular emphasis on Polish and German law

PLN 56.00

The underlying assumption of this book is that in the special environment that is the public sector, certain features of what we call civil law manifest themselves with particular force through contrast. An analysis of the application of civil law in the public sector is somewhat akin to an “intellectual journey to the source of the Amazon.” If one seeks a new, fresher view on civil law institutions and the civil law method of regulation, then this possible precisely through observing how they are applied in this particular environment. Observation of the application of the institutions of civil law provenance in the public sector actually prompts one to conduct a detailed analysis, which can be described as a kind of "anatomy of civil law." It involves analyzing individual civil law institutions and arrangements, discovering their nature and the fundamental elements they consist of, as well as identifying the axiological and praxeological foundations that contributed to their development. The analysis carried out in the monograph indicates multiple relationships between civil law and constitutional law. The authors hope that this monograph will contribute to clarifying the relationship between these two branches of law. 

In this monograph, the authors raise the question whether, in the light of the provisions of the current Constitution, there are barriers standing in the way of using private law in the public sector. The authors respond in the affirmative to the question formulated in this way. In their opinion, due to the specific nature of the State and other public entities, some of the institutions of civil law lose their raison d'être in the public sector, and the nature of otherundergoes change to a lesser or greater extent. This phenomenon can be observed, for example, in the sphere of exercising subjective rights by public entities, in the sphere of their tort liability, in their legal capacity and freedom of contract, as well as in relation to such institutions of law as unjust enrichment. The legislator and the public bodies applying these laws, in particular the courts, should take this phenomenon into account. Otherwise, there may be violations of the standards of the democratic state of law, including the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens. In conclusion, the authors consider the need for developing a sub-branch of civil law which would find its application in the public sector.

Autorzy, stosując metodę prawnoporównawczą analizują konstytucyjne uwarunkowania stosowania prawa prywatnego w sektorze publicznym. Praca jest przykładem relatywnie nowego ujęcia tematu. W dotychczasowymi prawoznawstwie tematyka stosowania prawa prywatnego w sektorze publicznym stosunkowo rzadko podejmowana była bowiem z cywilistycznego punktu widzenia. Najczęściej była ona przedmiotem badań specjalistów prawa gospodarczego publicznego. Niemniej autorzy zadbali o to, by monografia była również wyrazem wewnętrznej integracji nauk prawnych. Dlatego też w projekcie badawczym obok cywilistów uczestniczy również specjalistka z dziedziny prawa publicznego. W ramach podjętych badań autorzy musieli zmierzyć się z tak doniosłymi problemami we współczesnym prawoznawstwie, jak: istota podziału systemu prawnego na prawo prywatne i publiczne; problematyka konstytucjonalizacji prawa prywatnego, a w ramach tego zagadnienie horyzontalnego efektu praw podstawowych; kwestia wewnętrznej integralności systemu prawnego, w tym zagadnienie kryteriów wyodrębniania gałęzi prawa oraz autonomii tych gałęzi, jak również rozumienia zasady jedności prawa cywilnego; problematyka metod stosowania prawa prywatnego w sektorze publicznym. Jedną z konkluzji jest postulat wyodrębnienia subgałęzi prawa cywilnego, to jest prawa cywilnego sektora publicznego. Autorom towarzyszy przekonanie, że analiza stosowania prawa prywatnego w sektorze publicznym może przyczynić się do wzbogacenia metodologii cywilistycznej. W tym specyficznym środowisku, jakim jest sektor publiczny, ze zdwojoną mocą można dostrzec charakterystyczne cechy prawa cywilnego, a więc zarówno cywilnoprawej metody regulacji, jak i poszczególnych instytucji kwalifikowanych jako cywilnoprawne.

Contributors

Abberviations

INTRODUCTION (R. Szczepaniak, M. Krzymuski)

PART I
MAIN METHODOLOGICAL AND THEORETICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE APPLICATION OF PRIVATE LAW IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (R. Szczepaniak)

Chapter 1. Linguistic determinants of research on the application of private law in the public sector
I. Introduction
II. Classification of languages within the field in question
III. Problems of comparative nature
IV. Lack of conceptual precision in research on the application of private (civil) law in the public sector
1. Problem with concepts in which the adjective “public” appears
2. The problem of internal stratification of the tort liability of public authorities
3. The attribute of “public law”
V. An attempt to systematize concepts
1. Initial assumptions
2. “Public sector,” “public entity,” “public administration”
3. Occam’s razor method
1) “Entity of public law” (“legal person under public law”)
2) The concept of “Fiskus” (in the Polish language of civil law “Skarb Państwa”) as the state operating in the area of private law
3) The division into public and private law
4) The non-dichotomous nature of division into public and private law
5) Breaking with the division into actes d’autrorité (acts of authority, imperium) and actes de gestion (corporate acts, dominium)
VI. Risk of manipulation through interference in the semantic rules of the languageof legal acts and legal language
VII. Conclusions

Chapter 2. Division into public law and private law in the context of constitutional axiology
I. Introduction
II. Ideological and constitutional dimension of the division
III. Other reasons for cultivating this division
IV. Autonomy of individual branches of law
V. Factors weakening the division into public and private law
1. Challenging the methodological correctness of this division 73
2. Criticism of ideological (political) approach
VI. EU law
VII. Polish version of the division into public and private law
1. Introductory remarks
2. The principle of unity of civil law in Polish conditions
3. Difficult transition from the previous legal system
VIII. Criteria for distinguishing between private and public law or (Germ. “oder”) critera justifying cases of derogation from general law (civil law)
1. Introductory remarks
2. The subjective criterion versus the criterion of interest
3. The subjective criterion versus the criterion of subordination
4. Public entities using private entities in performing their tasks
IX. Conclusions

Chapter 3. Private law and the Constitution
I. The essence of constitutionalization of private law
II. The evolution of the constitutional process on the example of Germany and Poland
1. Germany
2. Poland
III. Means of influence of the Constitution on private law
1. Introduction
2. Interpretation of law
3. Inferential rules
4. General Clauses
IV. The place of civil law principles in the hierarchical legal system
V. Competition of constitutional principles

PART II
PROBLEMS OF CIVIL LAW FORMS OF ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITY FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SCIENCE OF PUBLIC LAW
(K. Kokocińska)

Chapter I. The sense and significance of the separation of public law and private law in the light of public law sciences
I. Relations between public law and private law
II. Separation of regimes at the level of legal institutions

Chapter 2. On the penetration and interaction of law
I. Auxiliary application of private law provisions
II. Problems of borderline areas in law

Chapter 3. Private law in administration activities
I. The concept of shaping of legal relations on two levels as a consequence of using different forms of action in terms of their legal nature
II. Administrative private law (Verwaltungsprivatrecht)

Chapter 4. Issues of consensual forms in the activities of public administration
I. Determinants of changes within the catalog of legal forms of public administration activities
II. Organizational freedom in the provision of public services
III. Bilateral forms of activity in contemporary public administration 184
IV. Bilateral forms of activity in the classification of legal forms of public administration, with particular emphasis on the contract
V. Civil law contract concluded by the administration
VI. Administrative agreement
VII. Atypical consensual activities in the light of typologies of bilateral forms of activity (the contract in relations between executive entities)

PART III
SELECTED EXAMPLES OF THE APPLICATION OF CIVIL LAW INSTITUTIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (R. Szczepaniak, M. Krzymuski)

Chapter 1. The freedom of contract in the public sector, with particular emphasis on Polish and German experience
I. Introduction
II. Terminological and classification problems
III. Constitutional principles and values in the light of the freedom of contract for public entities
1. New Public Management
2. The Fiskus theory
3. The fundamental rights seen as the limits of freedom of contract. The issue of the constitutional subjectivity of public entities
4. The principle of a democratic state
5. The principle of the state ruled by law
1) The requirement of a legal basis – the principle of statutory reservation in German law
a) Public law contracts
b) Civil law contracts
2) The requirement of a legal basis in Polish law
3) Article 3531 of the Polish Civil Code as the legal basis for concluding contracts by public sector entities 
IV. More about the controversy around the understanding of the concept of “freedom of contract”
V. The freedom of contract in the activities of local self-government
VI. The freedom of contract in the context of special legal capacity (ultra vires) of public entities as well as the scope and nature of their subjective rights
VII. Legal consequences of crossing the limits of the freedom of contract in the public sector
VIII. Conclusions

Chapter 2. Application of civil law provisions to liability for damages of public authorities in the light of constitutional principles
I. The regime of tort liability of public authorities and classic civil law
II. The escape of the regime of liability for damages of public authorities from the framework of the traditional science of civil law
III. Stratification of the liability of public authorities in Poland as a manifestation of the escape of the liability regime of public authorities from the
framework of traditional science of civil law
IV. Public authorities’ liability for legal acts in Poland
V. Civil law liability for damages and the specificity of the State on the example of Polish law
VI. Unsuitability of art. 429 of Polish the Civil Code for the specificity of the public sector
VII. Conclusions regarding Polish law
VIII. Application of civil law provisions to liability for damages of public authorities (remarks on the situation in German law)
1. The system of the liability of public authorities in German law
2. The principle of federalism and legislative competences – a legislative episode in the 1980s
3. Stratification of legal instruments of State liability
4. The nature of State liability
5. Amtshaftung
6. Liability of the State as a participant in civil law transactions
7. State liability for legislative acts
8. The issue of contractual liability
9. Liability of the State for legal actions
10. Conclusions regarding German law
IX. Some reflections on comparative law research in the area of the tort liability of public authorities and on the process of convergence of compensation
regimes of public authorities in Europe
X. Convergence as a result of EU membership
XI. General conclusions from the presentation of the Polish and German regime
of the tort liability of public authorities

Chapter 3. Subjective rights in the public sector (Selected issues)
I. Introduction. The achievements of civil law in shaping the concept of the subjective right
II. Polish Law
1. Introductory remarks
2. Characteristics of the property belonging to public entities
3. The nature of public property in the light of the Constitution
4. Internal roads and public roads
5. Constitutional conflicts related to public property
6. The scope of powers resulting from property rights enjoyed by public entities and the scope of their legal capacity
7. The case of open pension funds
8. The issue of fundamental (constitutional) rights of public entities
III. German law
1. Introduction
2. The concept of property and public property
3. The concept of public things (öffentliche Sachen)
4. Public property law on movable property?
5. Public ownership
6. Civil law property of public entities and its limitations
IV. Conclusions from the presentation of Polish and German law 

Chapter 4. The legal institution of unjust enrichment in the public sector (Selected issues)
I. Introduction
II. Polish law
1. Legal qualification of the basic relationship in the context of unjust enrichment
2. Autonomy of tax law versus unjust enrichment
1) General remarks
2) The position of the highest courts in Poland
3. Unjust enrichment in the social insurance law
4. Conclusions
III. German Law
1. Introductory remarks
2. Reimbursement claims based on special regulations
1) Introduction
2) Reimbursement claims in German tax law (§ 37 section 2 AO)
3) Reimbursement claim in the case of withdrawal of an administrative decision (§ 49a (1) of the Administrative Procedure Act (VwVfG))
4) Claims for unduly paid social benefits (§ 50 (1) and (2) of the Social Insurance Code Vol. 10 (SGB X))
3. General public law reimbursement claims
1) General information
2) Premises for general reimbursement claims
a) General information
b) Material benefit (Vermögensverschiebung)
c) Public law relationship between parties (öffentlich-rechtliche Rechtsbeziehung)
d) Lack of legal basis for property benefits effected
e) Scope of claim
f) Return of unjust benefit
g) Disposal of the enrichment
h) Compensation of mutual reimbursement claims
IV. General Conclusions regarding Polish and German Law

Chapter 5. Application of the provisions of the Civil Code concerning declarations of intent in the public sector
I. Polish law
1. Introduction
2. The concept of declarations of intent and legal action (das Rechtsgeschӓft) in administrative law
3. Arguments against the application of the Civil Code to declarations of intent in the public sector
4. Arguments for applying the Civil Code to declarations of intent in the public sector
1) Similarity criterion
2) Pragmatic reasons
3) Civil law as technical law 392
5. Specific issues
1) Administrative power of attorney
2) Revocation of declarations of intent made by parties to administrative proceedings
3) Interpretation of declarations of intent by parties in administrative proceedings
4) Document delivery
5) Defects of declarations of intent made by parties in administrative proceedings
II. German law
1. The concept of the declaration of intent and legal act (das Rechtsgeschӓft) in German public law
2. Arguments for applying civil law provisions to public law declarations of intent
1) General remarks
2) Specific issues
a) Interpretation of declarations of intent in civil law
b) Application of the provisions of § 133 and § 157 BGB to the interpretation of declarations in administrative law
c) Avoidance of the effects of a declaration of intent (Anfechtung)
d) Set-off in administrative law
e) Conclusion of a public law contract
f) § 59 VwVfG in the context of § 134 BGB, that is the issue of invalidity of a public law contract
g) Representation
h) Declarations of intent reaching the addressee
III. Conclusions regarding Polish and German law

Chapter 6. Set-off in public sector
I. General considerations
II. Poland
1. Introduction
2. Analysis of selected cases of set-off in the public sector
1) Set-off of tax liabilities
2) Set-off of public funds constituting non-tax budgetary receivables of public-law nature
3) Set-off based on the Act on Social Assistance
4) Set-off on the basis of the Act of 9 May 2008 on the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture
5) Set-off on the basis of the Act on the principles of management of state property
3. Differences between set-off under the Civil Code and in the public sector
4. Possibility of applying the provisions of the Polish Civil Code regarding set-off in the public sector. Conclusions
III. Germany
1. Preliminary considerations
2. Public law set-off sensu stricto
1) Preliminary remarks
2) Set-off in tax law (§ 226 AO)
3) Set-off in social affairs (§ 51 SGB I – Sozialgesetzbuch)
4) Other provisions
3. Set-off based on general principles
1) Introduction
2) Legal basis for set-off
3) Admissibility of set-off
4) Mutual and homogeneous claims
5) Maturity and enforceability of claims
6) Declaration of set-off
7) Consequences of set-off
IV. General conclusions regarding Polish and German law

Chapter 7. Charging of interest for delayed payment in the public sector (Selected Issues)
I. Polish Law
1. Introduction
2. Charging interest in the event of a delay in the payment of the awarded trial costs
1) Introductory remarks
2) Arguments for and against interest on costs of legal proceedings not paid in due time
3. Charging of interest for delayed payment as the guiding principle of the entire legal system
4. Interest in tax law and public finance law
5. Conclusions
II. German law
1. Principles regarding the interest rate on cash liabilities resulting from public-law titles
1) Introductory remarks
2) The legal basis for charging interest
a) § 49a (3) sentence 1 VwVfG
b) Other provisions
2. Application of civil law provisions
1) Introductory remarks
2) Late payment interest (§ 286 BGB in conjunction with § 288 BGB)
3) Interest on litigation costs (§ 291 BGB)
4) § 818 (1) BGB
5) § 849 BGB
6) § 839 BzGB in conjunction with art. 34 GG 481
3. Limitation of claims for payment of interest
4. Court proceedings
III. General conclusions resulting from the analysis of German and Polish law

Chapter 8. The application of Actio Pauliana to tax obligations
I. Introduction
II. Polish law
1. Evolution of views
2. The autonomy of tax law and the division of the legal system into public law and private law
3. A reference to French solutions
4. The issue of prohibiting the use of civil law by analogy to the detriment of citizens
5. The issue of the method of applying civil law provisions: directly or by analogy
6. Other arguments against the application of Actio Pauliana to tax liabilities and polemics with them
III. Actio Pauliana in German tax law
1. Sources of law
2. Legal basis for the use of AnfG in the enforcement of tax liabilities
3. The situation before the introduction of § 191 subsection 1 sent. 2 AO
4. Constitutional doubts
1) Introductory remarks
2) Violation of art. 101 section 1 sent. 2 of GG
3) Violation of the principle of equality
4) Violation of art. 20 section 3 GG
5. Amendment of § 191 subsection 1 AO and its effects
6. Rules for issuing a decision ordering a third party to tolerate executions (Duldungsbescheid). Premises for issuing an administrative decision
7. Direct effects
8. Systemic effects
9. Conditions for raising an allegation (para. 9 of the AnfG)
10. The admissibility of filing of an action under §§ 11, 13 AnfG by the tax authorities
IV. General conclusions resulting from the analysis of German and Polish law

Chapter 9. Methodology for applying private law in the public sector (summary of Part III)
I. Introduction. A reference to French solutions
II. German methodology for applying private law in the public sector (with reference to Polish science)
1. Analogy and reasoning through the prism of the main principles of law
2. The concept of administrative private law (Verwaltungsprivatrecht) and the theory of two stages
III. Methodology of applying private law in the public sector against the background of the concept of sources of law
IV. The issue of the civil law provenience of the main principles of the legal system
V. Direct application of civil law provisions in the public sector
1. Introduction
2. Relationships under civil law
1) General reflections
2) Civil law relationship in Polish legal science
3) Civil law relationship in German legal sciences
VI. Conclusion

PART IV
THE CURRENT STATE OF CIVIL LAW METHODOLOGY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ANALYSES OF THE APPLICATION OF PRIVATE LAW IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (R. Szczepaniak)

Chapter 1. The effectiveness of civil law methodology and the specifics of the public sector

Chapter 2. From the Fiscus Theory to the concept of horizontal effect of fundamental rights

Chapter 3. Between the technical and axiological dimension of civil law
I. Introductory remarks
II. Technical and axiological component in civil law institutions
III. Civil law and praxeology rules
IV. Civil law as primary law
V. Reception capacity of civil law
VI. Balancing between values
VII. The technical nature of civil law institutions and the method of their application in the public sector

Chapter 4. Civil law axiology versus the Constitution (conclusions)

Chapter 5. The sense of distinguishing the civil law of the public sector as one of the civil (private) law sub-branches

LIST OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CONCLUSIONS (R. Szczepaniak)

Bibliography

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You're reviewing:Constitutional barriers to the applicability of private law in the public sector. A comparative study with particular emphasis on Polish and German law
Detailed information
Publication Version printed
Type of publication Monografia
Edition I
Series Adam Mickiewicz University Law Books No 12
ISBN 978-83-232-3638-2
Number of pages 722
Number of publishing sheets 53,00
Format [cm] 17,0 x 24,0
Type of binding hardcover
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